This graph is a variation on a slope graph. Slope graphs are fairly straight forward in Tableau because it's a straight line from point a to point b and the size of the line is simple. The shape of the line in this visualization is a bit more difficult.
To recreate this shape in Tableau I applied the Sigmoid Function: 1/(1+e(-x)))
Then I plotted the points and used the absolute value of the maximum rank minus the minimum rank: size = ABS(Max-Min). I also used a custom color palette (type="ordered-sequential" for this categorical color scheme) and I used ColorPic to get the exact colors from the original visualization.
The hard part of this visualization is setting up the data. Once that is done the plotting is quick and easy. In fact, it's so easy to plot it could be a Tableau 3 minute video!